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Abstract: The studies on the Chinese tomb paintings mainly have dealt with the subject matters and contents of wall paintings in a tomb. The paper titled "The Construction and Function of Tomb Paintings," however, paid an attention on the evolution and function of murals inside a tomb in the development of Chinese tomb construction. Especially, while most researches on the topic have concerned about those tombs with murals from the late Western Han to the Eastern Han built of a large hollow tile or a small brick, the paper traced back to the tomb paintings from the early periods including the Zhou, the Warring States period, and the early Western Han for the orig! in and function of tomb murals. Since I do not have a different opinion on most parts of the paper presented, I would like to ask two simple questions in the following.
First of all, with regard to the content and origin of the early period tomb paintings, the authors disagreed with the opinion of many scholars that the early tomb murals originated from the palace or temple paintings since Shang and Zhou dynasties as well as the funerary paintings from the Chu in the Warring States period. While the purpose and function of the murals in a palace and temple are didactic and realistic, those of tomb murals intend to console the soul of the deceased and to help the soul ascend to heaven. One question I would like to ask is even though the early Western Han tomb murals might have intended to the above purpose, if we move to the ! Eastern Han period, the subject matters of tomb murals also include didactic and realistic ones. So, in my opinion, the murals at a palace and temple architecture also might need to be considered as one of the origins of tomb murals.
Second, in "the Ideology of Funerary Rituals", the authors noted that there are common features in the appearance and function of tomb murals and funerary rituals, and they are interrelated each other. Here, the presenters explained the concept of po and hun . The purpose and function of the tomb paintings and tomb architecture is to protect the dead body as consoling po , and to help hun ascend to heaven. Thus, the tomb architecture and decoration evolved with these two basic functions, protecting the dead body 安魄 and helping the hun to ascend to heaven 安魂. The presenters concluded that the initiative motive to depict a painting in a tomb is to represent heaven where the deceased's soul eventually returns.
In the last part of the paper, the presenters discussed the development of a large hollow brick tomb and a small brick tomb in the Han period. Besides two major factors such as the economic development and the immortality ideology as well as rich burials influenced by the Confucianism and filial piety, the paper added another point that the change in the construction of a tomb including the utilization of a brick also contributed to the evolution of tomb murals. The structural features of a large hollow tile tomb and a small brick tomb were effective in creating ideological heaven for the deceased's soul.
The paper presented an important point in that how the structural evolution of a funerary architecture influenced on the development of tomb paintings, and how the architectural feature of a tomb is interrelated to the subject matters of the early funerary murals. I would like to just add some comments on the evolution of Chinese murals tombs in comparison with Korean mural tombs. The ceiling paintings in Chinese tombs seem to be less emphasized as it moved to the Eastern Han period when the major subjects of murals became the actual life of the deceased and human figures in daily life scenes. Although there are some exceptions like the Tomb No. 5 at Dingjiaz! ha, Jiuquan, Gansu from the Wei-Jin period, Chinese mural tombs from the Wei-Jin and the Northern and Southern Dynasties and thereafter show less interest in decorating the ceiling. It is contrary to the case of Koguryo tombs where the tomb builders consider a ceiling as another important space to represent their ideology and next world view. The presented paper which examined the development of the early tomb murals in relation with the hun and po ideology and showed an emphasis on the ! representation of heaven in the early murals would help to enhance und erstanding on the interrelationship between architecture and murals concerning Chinese and Koguryo mural tombs.
Author: Mr. YAO Zhiyuan, Ms. XU Chanfei
Translated by Pref. Piao Yalin at Korea.
June, 2004, Issued at Study of Chinese History, vol.30，Dakeu, Korea,
Abstract: From Spring and Autumn Period on bronze vessel of Zhou Dynasty there is a popular carving skills which is forming incised lines into pictures. The topic which was something related to amenity and ceremony is valued information for study of history, amenity rule and amenity ceremony of Zhou Dynasty.
Key words: Zhou Dynasty, Incised Line Bronze Vessel, Amenity
Abstract:Before Song Dynasty the cause of tomb mural paintings is because of religion and mediumistic, then is the institution. But it is not the same reason in Song Dynasty. Due to the prosperous and development of economy, the commons became richer and the number of the riches had increased more, both had impacted the society, which was comprehensive and thus spread to burial system.
The art form of tomb mural paintings of Song was derived from Tang’s, but because of big different status of the owner and social background, they are different in are style. Supposing Tang’s are rough and vigorous, well then the Song’s are fine and elegant.
Key Words: Luoyang, Tomb Mural painting at Song Dynasty
The difficult position made
people with big question and great concerns. By analyzing the death position,
age, sex and the criminal bone wares remaining at her body, the cause could be
something related with barbarism witchcraft and sacrifice in the period of the
Matriarchal Society. Her death was the result of once sacrifice as an
immolation. The more approach to the real fact is that she was not only the
sacrifice, but also a sorceress herself.
Author: Ms Hsu Cham-fei, GENG YUN LUN CONG-II, Editor: Luoyang Cultural Relic Management Bureau. Publisher: Science Publisher. Published on Mar 14th, 2003. ISBN: 7-03-010844-2/K.206
Study of Big Tree Mural Painting- in Sixteen Kingdoms Tomb
is very surprising mural painting at No. 5 Tomb at Dingjiazha, Jiuquan City of
Gansu Province. It has something related to the ancient worship conception of
respecting animal & vegetations by the primitive ancestors. The Big Tree should
represent a kind of sacred tree, therefore it is a SACRED TREE. The flourish
tree, the naked woman sweeping ground and the monkeys climbing on the trees
formed the scenery that this is the origin myth. By studying of the connotative
birth myth at the Sacred Tree together with situation of grand scale of tomb,
luxuries decoration, we can sure that the master is a honored noble with high
position even the chieftain of Qiang Nationality.
will always see fish & dragon swimming together at tomb mural paintings in Han
Dynasty. Researchers call it as Fish-Dragon-Picture. The contents which were
formed by the fish-dragon-picture display epoch significance, i.e. the very
popular myth called “CHANGEOVER OF FISH OR DRAGON”. It reflects the strong
desires of ascending to heaven and become immortal, long live etc. in Han
Dynasties. They are valuable relic for study of social ideology and funeral
customs in Han Dynasties.
Theology, also called New Confucianism, was completed and developed by Master
Dong Zhongshu, the Master Scholar in Han Dynasty, based on the thoughts of
Confucius. It experienced the procedure of formation, development and
nationalization and brought out strong impact of the time and for every facet in
the later two thousand years. As a form of Confucian funeral culture, funeral
mural paintings was a kind of popular form in Han Dynasties, which was indeed
influenced and effected during nationalization of Confucian theology. This
impact and influence were based on enriching contents & themes and speeded up
directly the development and innovation of funeral mural paintings.
Key Words: Han Dynasty, Confucian Theology, Funeral Figure
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